The judgment stroke, assertion, and logical syntax


  • Martin-Löf “meaning of the logical constants” p. 2.
  • Russell and Whitehead on the analogical structure of formal syntax in the introduction to the principa
  • Frege on the Inhalt vs Urteil strokes
  • Prolog, on the explicit evaluation and the availability of syntactic forms.

The formula `A B` should express some relation between the referrant or correlate of A with the referrant or correlate of B.

when considering whether the statement expressed in `A B` is true, we have to consider the complete system of analogies at work:

`A` : `B` :: (the signs) A : B :: (the notions/concepts) A’ : B’ (the referents)

We can have breakdown or missteps at any point. Moreover, when we’ve made semantic or transcendental ascent, there may be various forms of abstraction or generalization mediating between the stages of the analogy.